Casablanca. As minority opinions are silenced, the illusion of consensus grows, and so does social pressure to adopt the dominant position. Then, write a one-page essay about the topic you’ve selected. Hebdige (1979) Studied British youth subcultures (Late 1970’s) He focused on the reality of youth cultures. structuralism, including Lévi-Strauss In this way, gender becomes a performance, with the media providing the script. More recently, coverage of natural disasters has been prominent in the news. Generation of ideas, images and/or solutions. Cultural values position audiences differently also. A Theorist. Media also propagate other noncommercial symbols. Nakamura - defines cybertyping as the distinctive ways that the internet propagates, disseminates, and commodities images of race and racism. Genres are defined by the film industry and recognized by the mass audience. The pervasiveness of these formats means that our culture uses the style and content of these shows as ways to interpret reality. New Equilibrium/ Re-Equilibrium/ Second Equilibrium: (satisfactory end) Back to normal, peace restored (but never the same)- a new normality! Papacharissi, Zizi. David Buckingham - “Genre is not simply given by the culture, rather, it is in a constant process of negotiation and change.” As society changes, so to do the genres to reflect culture of that time. The four eras are mass society, scientific perspective, limited effects and cultural criticism. Much of this content has been taken and edited from resources spanning several years. Pre broadband Niche products were hard to find and expensive to buy, now online shopping/sharing makes it easy to cater for everyone's taste. Practise without theory is empty; theory without practise is blind. Chris Anderson – The Long Tail; If you add up all the revenue from Niche market films the profit can be greater than or equal to the profit from one blockbuster or best-selling product. This means that producer do not have to explain the conventions of a text as audiences are already familiar. The internet is the most extraordinary of these external storage systems, offering access to a vast array of information, text and audio-visual material, and giving people a platform to share and exchange ideas, and to collaborate on projects together. The Hypodermic Needle Theory, also known as the ‘magic bullet’ theory, says the media has a powerful and direct effect on audiences by ‘injecting’ them with messages. if you believe a text to be in a certain genre you will interpret according to your expectations of that genre. Resurrection – perhaps a final confrontation with death. Emotional security - we all keep seeking it; Reassurance of worth - In a connected world we can lose sense of who we are and what we are worth. The media logic theory states that common media formats and styles serve as a means of perceiving the world. Tim O'Reilly - inventor of term 'Web 2.0'. Refusal Of The Call – fear or reluctance may strike the hero. The Proairetic Code also builds tension as it sets the reader guessing what will happen next. We’ve designed a system that discards us.”. These elements give the text plausibility with its audience. Chandler (2001) How we define a genre depends on our purposes. We are a nation of Netizens and prosumers. © 2017 Burton Mayers Books. Theories of media effects explore the intended or unintended effects of what the media does. classic westerns expected roles of stock characters limits the unexpected developments of the narrative. Section 2 introduces the framework, and Section 3 discusses the application of these four theories to social media and compares them with empirical findings in the IS literature. Young people need constant surveillance and monitoring. Media Theories. Identify the basic theories of media effects. This is typically done through the use of binary opposites, where new meaning arises out of opposing and conflicting ideas. Carol Vernallis describes how verbal, musical, and visual codes combine in music video to create defining representations of race, class, gender, sexuality, and performance. Proudly created by Richard Mayers with Firstly, a state of balance or equilibrium is established. The absence of some of the conditions in these countries which are necessary for a developed mass communication system are as follows: 1. Barthes also proclaimed the ‘death of the author’ – he meant that the producers of texts and texts themselves are essentially meaningless and texts only become meaningful in the process of consumption by audiences. Raymond Williams: The Media is always dominated by the rich and powerful in society (Marxist Perspective), Tim Berners Lee (creator of internet) ‘Openness empowers People. ... Media Ecology (Marshall McLuhan) F Ch 25: The Media Equation (Byron Reeves & Clifford Nass) And this is just the beginning — ANYTHING can be taught more effectively through Digital Game-Based Learning.”, Douglas Rushkoff sings the praises of Web 2.0 by stating, “The Internet’s ability to network human beings is its very life’s blood. Click on the guide to referencing here if you want to get it right. The theory is concerned with how the self-identity and the behaviour of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them. Many people use the Internet to seek out entertainment, to find information, to communicate with like-minded individuals, or to pursue self-expression. Stanley Cohen defines 'Moral Panic' as "... a mass response to a group, a person or an attitude that becomes defined as a threat to society." Bill Gates as scapegoat. McQuail describes audience as a 'temporary collective'. Recently genres have been adapted to allow alternative representations – bad cowboys or gay cowboys. Use of an Apple product, therefore, may have a symbolic meaning and may send a particular message about the product’s owner. Sounds a bit dated now. Jonathan Culler (2001) describes narratology as comprising many strands “implicitly united in the recognition that narrative theory requires a distinction between story, a sequence of actions or events conceived as independent of their manifestation, and discourse, the discursive presentation or narration of events.”. When critics claim that a particular media outlet has an agenda, they are drawing on this theory. He also developed models of society out of Marxist theory. The limited application of the four established theories of the press to Third World countries has led to the birth of a new media theory whose main task is that communication be used to carry out the development functions in a society. Todorov, T - Identified 5 stages of narrative/story and the notion that plots have a circular narrative. Cultivation theory says that media cultivates the minds of the people; this holds … narratology, including Todorov . A study of the motives behind a given user’s interaction with Facebook, for example, could explain the role Facebook takes in society and the reasons for its appeal. He also suggested that ‘We derive pleasure from observing how the conventions of a genre are manipulated’. Televised violent acts, whether those reported on news programs or portrayed on television dramas, for example, greatly outnumber violent acts that most people encounter in their daily lives. Often action codes allow characters the chance to resolve a problem through action, often violent action (gun fights/ car chases). Celebrities are also used when they effectively say 'you will be admired and valued like me'; Ego gratification - we want to be congratulated and praised, much as we needed to be valued and praised as a child; Creative outlets - Many jobs have little creative content, leaving this need unfulfilled. a Disney fairytale using computer generated imagery, released in multiplex’s and DVD and internet availability. In his book Who Owns the Future? Coates - Examined that there are 4 ways to understand a society (linked to ideology), Dutton - Developed an extension of Galtung & Ruge's news values - 12 most significant. Thus, an individual who watches a great deal of television may come to view the world as more violent and dangerous than it actually is. Blumer & Katz -  Uses and Gratifications Theory the media have a limited effect on their audiences because audiences are able to exercise control over their media consumption. “Uses and Gratifications,” 153–154. Because we are aware of much more than we have personally experienced our own experience is mainly indirect. McLuhan spoke of a media-inspired “global village” at a time when Cold War paranoia was at its peak and the Vietnam War was a hotly debated subject. The idea of Democratic participant Theory was started by grass-root level media in 1960s. 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