The above information was obtained from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s computerized Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), and from the National Library of Medicine’s computerized chemical dictionary file CHEMLINE. Careful history regarding dietary and nutritional habits (eg, use of nutritional supplements and ayurvedic medicines, alcohol abuse) and hobbies Clinical effects of arsenic toxicity depend on the chronicity of exposure (eg, acute, chronic) and the chemical form involved, whic… Arsine can be produced by fungi (especially in sewage) in the presence of arsenic. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. This was manifested by a progressive drop in the number of red blood cells and in the hemoglobin level. Arsine is a gas consisting of arsenic and hydrogen. Arsine gas is used in the semiconductor industry when depositing arsenic on microchips. Since that time it had been cleaned with steam and detergent, and used for storage and transportation of alcohol and other industrial solvents. A) USES: Arsine (AsH. -, Hong YS, Song KH, Chung JY. The manufacturer had added sodium arsenite and aniline hydrochloride to the acid to act as inhibitors to the corrosive action of the acid. HHS In one report of chronic arsine poisoning, it was noted that arsine in very small concentrations appeared to exert a cumulative, damaging effect. The processes for converting coal to gas and other by-products should include preventative measures aimed at reducing the chance of transformation of the arsenic impurities into arsine.1, The current Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard for occupational exposure to arsine is 0.05 ppm (0.2 mg/cu m of air) as a time-weighted average in any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week. Arsine is a colorless, flammable, non-irritating toxic gas with a mild garlic odor. : Personal communication, Lead Industries Association, New York, New York (June 14 and August 2, 1976). The first signs of arsenic toxicity are large amounts of "rice water" diarrhea that may be bloody, along with … Putman: Arsine Poisoning Country Style. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! A more recent area of concern involves the recycling of batteries. In addition more research into methods of sampling for the presence of arsine and stibine in air is needed, for both monitoring and documentation purposes. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. These symptoms are similar to those caused by arsine toxicity.24. Inorganic arsenic exposure of humans, by the inhalation route, has been shown to be strongly associated with lung cancer, while ingestion of inorganic arsenic by humans has been linked to a form of skin cancer and also to bladder, liver, and lung cancer. The exact mechanism by which arsenic causes erythrocytes to -, Carlin DJ, Naujokas MF, Bradham KD, Cowden J, Heacock M, Henry HF, Lee JS, Thomas DJ, Thompson C, Tokar EJ, Waalkes MP, Birnbaum LS, Suk WA. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Subsequently the mixture of water and sodium arsenite under these conditions led to the generation of arsine. The examination was performed 0-6 hr after the exposure. CDC twenty four seven. Arsine is similar to a gas called stibine, which is formed when the metal antimony comes in contact with an acid. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute … J Prev Med Public Health. In W. Braker and A.C. Mossman: Kitzmiller, K.V., and R.A. Kehoe: Occupational Anemias. Total arsenic in whole blood and hematocrit (Ht) values were measured. Rothwell, S.S. Polack, and D.W. Stewart: Chronic Arsine Poisoning Among Workers Employed in the Cyanide Extraction of Gold: A Report of Fourteen Cases. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: NIOSH National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS): Personal communication to the NIOSH Technical Evaluation and Review Branch, Office of Extramural Coordination and Special Projects, Rockville, Maryland (June 4. The tank had been used 6 months previously for the transport of a 42% solution of sodium arsenite (weed killer). Hawlick, G.F., and E.B. EPA has classified inorganic arsenic as a human carcinogen. Environmental source of arsenic exposure. CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. However, in relation to the degree of blood destruction, the degree of known disability experienced by the victims of chronic arsine poisoning was less than expected.8, Chronic Arsenic Toxicity – Since inorganic arsenic is needed to generate arsine, prolonged exposures to low levels of arsine are likely to occur under conditions where workers are also exposed to inorganic arsenic. Zinc, water, and sulphuric acid had been added to the dust. Although the accidents illustrated in the above tables differ with respect to the surrounding circumstances, the basic reactions leading to arsine formation are similar. NIOSH RTECS Number: CG6475000 Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Sep;47(5):245-52. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. Examples of workers poisoned by arsine in miscellaneous occupational settings. Health effects of chronic arsenic exposure. In the production of “maintenance-free” batteries, calcium is added to the lead alloys as a hardening agent. Stibine (SbH3; hydrogen antimonide; antimony hydride; antimony trihydride)- Antimony (Sb) can be converted to stibine by a similar series of reactions required to convert arsenic to arsine. -. (1946), 1, 287. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Five workers were poisoned while washing aluminum slag to dissolve out soluble constituents. Ores contaminated with arsenic can liberate arsine when treated with acid.1 Arsine is commercially produced for use in organic synthesis, and the processing of solid state electronic components. TABLE 3. The inorganic forms of arsenic exhibit the highest toxicity level40, while organoarsenicals are usually less toxic than the inorganic arsenic species. From 1928 to 1974 an additional 207 cases were reported, of which 51 (25%) were fatal.1, Acute Arsine Toxicity – Arsine is the most acutely toxic form of arsenic and one of the major industrial causes of sudden extensive hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells). Similarly, when working with arsenical compounds care should always be taken to prevent the inadvertent generation of hydrogen gas in the presence of arsenicals. Although arsenic homicides commonly receive media publicity, the primary source of arsenic toxicity to the general population is by contaminated water, soil and food products. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. It has the ability to combine with hemoglobin within the red blood cell, causing destruction or severe swelling of the cell, rendering it nonfunctional.1 Inhalation of 250 ppm (800 mg/cu m) of arsine gas is instantly lethal. This estimate is not, however, based on actual workplace environmental exposure measurements. Ley: Arsine Poisoning. Abstract. Although arsenic homicides commonly receive media publicity, the primary source of arsenic toxicity to the general population is by contaminated water, soil and food products. Rathus, E., R.G. Frequently, patients exposed to arsenic have a garlic odor to their breath and tissue fluids. As a result of inorganic arsenic's direct toxicity to the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract and its systemic enzyme inhibition, profound gastroenteritis, sometimes with hemorrhage, can occur within minutes to hours after ingestion. Arsine, ook bekend als arseentrihydride, is een bijzonder toxisch gas met als brutoformule AsH3, dat onder andere gebruikt wordt voor de synthese van halfgeleiders en forensisch onderzoek. Arsenic poisoning is a global health issue affecting millions of people worldwide through environmental and occupational exposure, as well as intentional suicide and homicide attempts. When nascent hydrogen is generated in the presence of arsenic, or when water reacts with a metallic arsenide, arsine evolves. Two years before, arsenic had been used in the vat as an insecticide. Stinton, and J.L. In the event arsine and/or stibine is generated, immediate steps should be taken to remove workers from the contaminated environment. Chemical Formula: AsH 3, Arsine The toxicity of arsine is distinct from that of other arsenic compounds. When stibine enters the bloodstream, it reacts with the hemoglobin of red blood cells, leading to destruction of the cells.21 Stibine exerts a direct effect on the brain tissue cells, leading to various degrees of degeneration.23 Victims of stibine poisoning have experienced marked weakness headache, nausea, severe abdominal and lower back pain, and blood in the urine. The NOHS estimate for occupational exposure to antimony is approximately l,7OO,OOO workers.5, The first case of arsine poisoning was reported in 1815 after a German chemist died from an exposure to arsine in his laboratory. Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Upon heating with steam, arsine was formed because arsenic impurities and nascent hydrogen were both present. Unpublished Report. The Mean Lethal Dose (MLD) is unknown for man, but in small mammals it is about 0.5 mg/kg body weight.6, The characteristic features of acute arsine poisoning are abdominal paint bloody urine, and jaundice (yellow discoloration of the skin). 2005 Jul-Aug;71(4):230-5. doi: 10.4103/0378-6323.16612. Readily absorbed via GI tract and inhalation, poorly via skin Wilkinson, S.P., P. McHugh, S. Horsley, H. Tubbs, M. Lewis, A. Thould, M. Winterton, V. Parsons, and R. Williams: Arsine Toxicity Aboard the Asia Freighter. : Arsine Intoxication in a Chemical Plant-Report of Three Cases. Probably because of this instability fewer cases of stibine poisoning have been reported.22 Stibine can evolve when certain alloys containing antimony (Sb) are treated with acid and subjected to electrolytic action, when certain antimony compounds are treated with steam, or whenever nascent hydrogen comes in contact with metallic antimony or with a soluble antimony compound. Kipling, M.D., and R. Fothergill: Arsine Poisoning in a Slag-Washing Plant. In cases of exposure or when any symptoms are first observed prompt medical attention is imperative. 2016 Feb 15;13(2):215. 2014 Sep;47(5):253-7. doi: 10.3961/jpmph.14.036. Exposures of 25-50 ppm (80-160 mg/cu m) for one-half hour are lethal, and 10 ppm (32 mg/cu m) is lethal after longer exposures. Examples of workers poisoned by arsine in enclosed spaces. Most cases of arsine poisoning have been associated with the use of acids and crude metals, one or both of which contained arsenic as an impurity. Stock.. A., and O. Guttmann: On Stibine and Yellow Antimony. Acute Arsine Toxicity – Arsine is the most acutely toxic form of arsenic and one of the major industrial causes of sudden extensive hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells). However, there are many other situations where exposures to lethal concentrations of the gas have been reported including galvanizing, soldering, etching and lead plating operations. A worker was poisoned while cleaning an obstructed industrial drain which contained acid liquors with arsenic impurities. Arsenate can replace phosphate in many reactions. Inorganic arsenic is found in nature at low levels mostly compounded with oxygen, chlorine, and sulfur. A detailed history to determine the exposure includes the following: 1. The acidic arsenic liquor reacted with the zinc coating of the bucket and produced arsine. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. J Prev Med Public Health. Stibine (SbH3), another toxic gas, is formed when antimony is exposed to nascent hydrogen. 2007 May;23(4):183-208. doi: 10.1177/0748233707076810. The document states that the short-term limit is intended to achieve the greatest practicable reduction in worker exposure while avoiding spurious sampling results which can be produced by natural background concentrations of inorganic arsenic.3 The 1978 NIOSH criteria document on antimony recommended the retention of the specific Federal limit for occupational exposure to antimony, without recommending a limit for stibine.4, The NIOSH National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS) estimates that approximately 900,000 workers are occupationally exposed to identified sources of arsenic for varying periods of time during the workday. From 1815 to 1928, 247 cases of arsine poisoning were reported. Olsen V, Mørland J. Copyright © 2020, StatPearls Publishing LLC. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. Once arsine is inhaled, it breaks down, releasing inorganic arsenic into the blood stream. -, Huang JH, Hu KN, Ilgen J, Ilgen G. Occurrence and stability of inorganic and organic arsenic species in wines, rice wines and beers from Central European market. We request that producers and distributors of arsenic and materials containing arsenic transmit information to their customers and employees, and that professional associations and unions inform their members. A worker was poisoned during reclamation of metal from flue dust obtained from blast furnaces. Dermatitis may be observed after chronic ingestion but the typical signs include increased pigmentation, and thickening of the skin on the palms and soles of the feet. The exposed victims experienced shortness of breath on exertion, and a general feeling of weakness. Skin cancer has long been considered a consequence of arsenic exposure, however multiple cancers of the internal organs have also been reported.3. and arsine are becoming rarer because of advent of low toxic pesticides. It is used in smelting operations, organic synthesis, the microelectronics industry, and less frequently for … Invariably, there was an acid medium where metal was present (e.g., dross residues galvanized implements, aluminum tanks or implements) thereby creating the key ingredients necessary for arsine formation. 300 ppm arsine for 5 min. 1979 Oct;40(10):A56-61. An unusual bronze discoloration of the skin can often be observed accompanying the jaundice. Arsine is a gaseous chemical compound that originates from the combination of arsenic and hydrogen atoms. Later, with another insecticide, superphosphate was added to create an acid medium, thereby leading to arsine production. As cooling occurs, the calcium arsenide floats to the surface as part of the dross, and in the presence of water, arsine evolves.20. TABLE 2. Kozyreva, and A.N. Arsine is a highly toxic gas that is generated upon exposure of arsenic–containing ores to acids, and it is a by–product of refining of non–ferrous metals. In light of the serious and accidental nature of exposure to arsine and/or stibine, NIOSH recommends that steps be taken to prevent exposure to these gases. Mazey, and J.E. 2016 Jul;124(7):890-9. Goncharenko, L.Ye., O.I. Arsenic (As) is a nearly tasteless odorless toxic metalloid element that is found ubiquitously in the environment. Current OSHA PEL: 0.05 ppm (0.2 mg/m3) TWA 1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL 1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.05 ppm (0.16 mg/m3) TWA Description of substance: Colorless gas with a mild, garlic … CAS number: 7784-42-1 NIOSH REL: 0.002 mg/m3 15-minute CEILING; NIOSH considers arsine to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990]. Most reported cases of exposure to arsine have occurred during the smelting and refining of metals. Arsine fumes were generated by moisture reacting with aluminum arsenide in metal dross. Changes in the heart’s performance as measured by the electrocardiogram (ECG) have been reported after chronic arsenic intoxication. Smalley, P.N. Levinsky, W.J., R.V. If the arsine exposure is severe, the products resulting from the breakdown of red blood cells and hemoglobin will clog the kidneys, causing a reduction in the amount of urine formed, sometimes to the point of complete blockage of urine formation. 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