The second stage, Stage 2, is “instrumental purpose and exchange.” In this stage, children’s actions are based on consideration for what others can do for them. 2005. For example, in American culture cannibalism is considered taboo, while in other cultures the act of consuming other human flesh is accepted as a sacrifice or ritual. c) Consequences that result from the action To determine the moral status of an action, utilitarianism has us look at (c), deontology (b), and virtue theory (a). Society: The Basics. "The right" is that which an actor ought to do (has strongest reason to do) in the circumstances of his or her action. Deontological theories (derived from the Greek word for duty, deon) base morality on certain duties, or obligations, and claim that certain actions are intrinsically right or wrong, that is, right or wrong in themselves, regardless of the consequences that may follow from those actions. Metaethics includes moral theories that contain assumptions which answer some metaphysical and epistemological questions about moral goods and values. Lawrence Kohlberg was inspired by Jean Piaget’s work on moral judgment to create a stage theory of moral development in childhood. There are two general types of moral theories: (1) Morality is relative and (2) Morality is universal. Respect for the Dignity of Human Sexuality 5. He then earned his doctorate degree in 1958. The second level in Kohlberg’s model, Conventional morality, is generally reached between ages 10 and 13, though some individuals never move beyond this level. My comments are not intended to diminish the work of these accomplished men. Macionis, John J. an approach to moral reasoning in which acts are based on a self-determined innate sense of moral duty with no regard for consequences. Answer: Understanding Kohlberg's theory of moral development can help you to understand your students, and help you to guide them in their moral development. In this stage, an act is considered wrong if it harms others or violates a rule or law (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 376). So up until stage 5, a person becomes more likely to obey the moral norms of their society as they mature morally. Consider implementing a system to reward students who follow the rules and who exhibit helpful behaviors in the classroom. Good moral values allows a person to make the right decisions and improve their interactions with other people. Intelligence also has much to do with self-awareness and reflection, perspective-taking abilities, and critical thinking, which, in turn, play important roles in moral, cognitive, and other aspects of development. Relativism determines morals and ethics according to the society that is being observed. STUDY. 11th ed. The metaphysical questions (such as What are, and how do moral goods and values exist? As shown earlier, one helpful way for leading an ethical case study discussion is to give students a guide, such as the “Seven Step Format for Ethical Decision Making” to help them think though the issues presented in a case. Moral theories allow us to see the implications of the judgments that these (and other fundamental concerns) are each important in moral reasoning. A person in this stage is willing to break the moral norms of their society if they believe that the moral norms are wrong. They include wisdom, prudence, loyalty, honesty, temperance, bravery, magnanimity, and justice. Moral theoriesRelated concepts: Back to the Concept Map. Print. Stufe 2: Individualismus & Austausch. The first includes the theories whose moral injunctions are derived from the immediate reality of human existence, or “man’s nature”—the natural needs or strivings of people, their inborn feelings, or the facts of their lives, considered as the self-evident and extrahistori-cal basis of morality. Obedience and Punishment, 2. Good actions = good consequences. Oh no! She claims that boys have a “justice perspective,” whereas girls have a “care and responsibility perspective” when judging morality. Kohlberg was born in Bronxville, New York in 1927. theory emphasizes the aim of always acting for perceived self-interest usually in the long term even at the expense of others if necessary. His research has profoundly shifted the way we look at moral development. Each of these levels are divided into two stages, for a total of six stages (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 375). "The good" is that which there is strongest reason to want or desire. maintains that the right thing to do is to follow the moral rule that would produce the greatest possible good if everyone followed it. Ethics (4) Metaethics; Moral theories (currently viewing) Consequentialism; Deontology; Virtue ethics; Other moral theories; Moral uncertainty; Theories of value (3) Well-being; Moral patienthood; Non-wellbeing sources of value contractarianism. in Creative Writing and English. Because so few people attain Level 3, Kohlberg questioned the validity of this level, though he later proposed an additional seventh stage, which he described as the “cosmic” stage, in which individuals are able to consider the effect of their actions on the universe as a whole (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 377). It sounds cliche but you are looking for your moral north star. b) The action itself . theory bases ethics on the values of justice and fairness, providing processes to help people understand what an ideal fair solution would be. I have not got all the six stages of moral development I saw only three levels were can I get the level 4-6. Stage 5 is the stage concerned with “morality of contract, of individual rights, and of democratically accepted law.” In this stage, individuals value the will of the majority and the well-being of society. Studies clearly demonstrate that both heredity and life experience contribute to account for a person's intellect, which is an important predictor of curiosity and desire to explore and discover. One of Kohlberg’s best known experiments is known as the Heinz Dilemma. Our understanding of human development relies on those who lay the foundation for further examination, which is what my comments are inviting. His theory was inspired by the research of Jean Piaget and has changed the way sociologists and psychologists look at moral development. Theorie der ethischen Gefühle (engl.The Theory of Moral Sentiments) ist ein erstmals 1759 in London in zwei Bänden veröffentlichtes philosophisches Werk von Adam Smith.Er erklärt darin umfassend, aus welchen Gründen es den Menschen möglich sei, füreinander das Gefühl des Mitgefühls zu empfinden. According to Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development, there are 6 stages of moral development, known as Kohlberg’s stages of moral development. But the word has a very different meaning in the realm of science when researchers are talking about empirical research that is back by scientific evidence. Cognitive Theories of Moral Development. Perhaps you implement clear punishments, such as loss of privileges, for students who break your classroom rules. http://www.bookrags.com/biography/lawrence-kohlberg-soc/. 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